The EU has time and again been accused of a democratic deficit, excessive centralization and regulation and a heavy bureaucracy, disconected from the citizens.
Many critics and sceptics of the EU expect remedy from a transformation of the Union into a more democratic Europe at variable geometry. Since various member countries have not adopted certain EU treaties in the past, a Europe at variable geometry does already exists in various important fields:
The new Europe shall be open to all European countries. All the citizens are invited to determine this Europe and to decide on its important issues. The new Europe shall thus be democratic, subsidiary and flexible.
To start with, the citizens throughout Europe shall be asked, in a Europe-wide referendum, to determine their country’s place in their new Europe, either politically integrated in the core union, or associated in the common market or free trade area.
Members of the core union will have to yield substantial additional parts of their sovereignty to the Union, starting with economic and financial policies (European economic union, EEU, including a common budget and transfer payments from the rich to the poor countries, to stabilize the euro), but also its refugee, foreign and defence policy (increased centralization).
The Constitution, which shall be elaborated according to democratic principles with and for the citizens, will allow citizens to define all the essential elements of EU*, in particular:
1. The rights and obligations of the citizens incl. the European citizens’ initiative;
2. The election and duties of the institutions (Commission, Parliament, Courts);
3. The rights and obligations of member countries and the Union;
4. The admission and withdrawal of member countries;
5. The transfer of competence from member countries to the Union;
6. Constitutional amendments.
The new core union will be substantially more centralized and more democratic than the existing EU.
Those European countries that do not want to belong to the core union can join the European common market / economic area (EEA), including the free movement of goods, services and capital, but not of people, and without the Euro), or the large free trade zone (open to all European countries between Vladivostok and Reykjavik).
These countries benefit from a strong and profitable European economic cooperation and from the advantages of the largest free trade zone of the world, respectively).
They retain essentiallly their sovereignty, their political structures and legislation (incl. their own currency and refugee policy), their legal system, Constitution and laws.
The treaties on the common market and on free trade will in particular define the mutual rights and duties and the admission of new members (model EFTA).
The new common market shall be more democratic, more subsidiary and less beaurocratic than to-day's single market / economic area (EEA) of the EU.
The citizens across Europe (as well as the Internet) play a central role in implementing the EU* scenario.
The citizens decide in a first Europe-wide referendum how their country shall position itself in the new Europe: in the politically integrated core, common market / EEA, free trade.
The citizens also have the last word during implementation, on crises and all other important European issues.
The result is a democratic, flexible, strong Europe of the citizens, with and for the citizens, from Vladivostok to Reykjavik, the implementation of the European peace project.